Ronald H. Petersen

AGROTYPE: a group of cultivars related by morphological or other characters, sometimes cultivated together (Jirasek. Taxon 10: 38. 1961). Comment: Apparently, a more accepted term is conculta.

ARITHMOTYPE: specimens bearing the same herbarium or collection number, not necessarily representing a single taxon (Wherry. Taxon 1: 32, 1992). Comment: A useful term, but not in connection with typification. Problems arise when several specimens are incorrectly (or "correctly") labeled as identical, but in fact differ (i.e. exsiccati collected in differing circumstances) or several small specimens (i.e. fungus fruitbodies, small grasses, mosses, etc.) under a single number in "one" collection.

AUXILIARY TYPE: (Regn. Veget. 81: 10. 1972.) A specimen or element to serve as type of a subordinate taxon when the type of the major taxon is inadequate to assign subordinate rank names to that type.

BIOTYPE: a genotypic race (Lawrence. Taxonomy of vascular plants. 1951. p. 741). Comment: Not a nomenclatural term, and in recent times considered too vague for general use.

CHEMOTYPE: Santesson (1968). Chemically characterized portions of morphologically indistinguishable populations.

CLASTOTYPE: an element originating from the same clone as the type (Wherry. Taxon 1: 32. 1952.). Comment: It would appear that Wherry obtained the term elsewhere, but its origin is not known to me. The term would seem useful also in mycology, where a single mycelium can be sampled repeatedly.

COTYPE: 1) same as syntype. 2) (erroneous) any and all elements cited by the originating author in the originating publication (cf. McVaugh, et al., Regn. Veget. 56: 11. 1968). Comment: Because of the inaccuracy of the term, syntype, isotype and paratype should be used.

CYTOTYPE: a portion of the type, prepared to exhibit identical cytological features (i.e. chromosomes) as those originally described for the taxon.

DESCRIPTOTYPE: that element or elements on which the original description was based (Fuchs. 1958. Taxon 7: 219). Comment: A useful term, but not sharply enough defined. The following situations lack resolution: 1) when a holotype consists of several specimens (i.e. fungi, mosses, etc.), and only a few were used as the basis for the original description (and often these were discarded; i.e. microscope mounts used for infracellular descriptions and spore measurements). Descriptotype is more limited than holotype. 2) When a number of specimens were used as the basis for the original description (holotype, paratypes), descriptotype becomes more inclusive than holotype.

ECOTYPE: (not nomenclatural). 1) a particular phenotypic or genotypic strain produced by environmental variation. Comment: The term has no connection with nomenclatural typification. 2) Jirasek (Taxon 10: 42. 1961) notes the use of this term for cultivated plants. Subsets of ecotypes are local ecotype (ecotypus localis) and regional ecotype (ecotypus regionalis, also known as geoecotype).

EPITYPE: ICBN, Art. 9. When the holotype or lectotype does not exhibit the necessary characters for taxonomic separation, an epitype may be designated to serve as a source for these missing characters, without loss or destruction of the holotype or lectotype.

GENOTYPE: (not nomenclatural) a circumscribed gene pool.

HOLOTYPE: the one specimen or other element used by the author or designated by him as the nomenclatural type (ICBN Art. 9). Comment: Most types can be segregated into those designated by the originating author in the originating publication, and those designated by a later author (including the originating author at a later date). As the sole "specimen or other element" of the former category, the holotype carries the highest authority of all, and is required of newly proposed names of taxa (ICBM, Art. 37). Two more specific terms have been found useful: 1) EXPLICIT HOLOTYPE: a holotype clearly stated in the originating publication (i.e Cunningham et al., 1976. Mycologia 68: 643); and 2) IMPLICIT HOLOTYPE: a single and only specimen proved to have been in the hands of the originating author when the description was published and implied by the protologue (i.e. Petersen. 1975. Biblioth. Mycol. 43: 125).

ICONOTYPE: 1) An illustration of the type. 2) An illustration serving as a type (ICBN, Art. 7). Comment: In recent years, illustrations have been deemed inadequate as type for macroscopic plants, for usually important taxonomic characters are not shown. For microscopic plants, however, illustrations are useful as types. Fossil taxa must be accompanied by an illustration (ICBN, Art. 38) which constitute the "iconotype" portion of the type. See also under PHOTOTYPE. In cases where the iconotype is inadequate for modern character assessment, an epitype may be designated.

INTERPRETOTYPE: Specimens interpreted by the originating author as belonging to the same taxon as the one proposed. (Fuchs. 1958. Taxon 7: 219). Comment: As proposed, the term seems nothing more than a substitute for "authentic specimens." Note the following difficulties: 1) the possibility of misidentification by the originating author; and 2) uncited specimens merely identified by the originating author.

ISO-: The prefix has been used to designate duplicates of other type categories, but always specimens (i.e. isosyntype, isolectotype, etc.). Only ISOTYPE is used in the ICBN Art. 7. (Morton. Taxon 17: 236.).

ISOTYPE: Any duplicate (part of a single gathering made by a collector at one time) of the holotype: it is always a specimen (ICBN Art. 7). Comment: No restriction is stated on citation, so assumedly isotypes may be uncited duplicates of the holotype, and as such, the term overlaps MEROTYPE. Application of isotype to exsiccati distributions is difficult, but the parenthetical restriction is helpful.

KLEPTOTYPE: (conventional). A portion of the type specimen purloined and resident in a collection other than that of the originating author. Comment: The term denotes nefarious motive, and has little justification in science. It is usually very difficult to ascertain under what circumstances specimens came into particular hands, especially during the long period in which specimens were shared, divided and distributed very freely by herbaria and institutions.

LECTOPARATYPE: (Gubanov and Linczevski. Taxon 30). When one syntype is selected to serve as lectotype, the remaining syntypes may be referred to as lectoparatypes.

LECTOTYPE: A specimen or other element selected from the original material to serve a nomenclatural type when no holotype was designated at the time of publication or as long as it is missing (ICBN Art. 7). Comment: A lectotype is designated by a later author (including the originating author at a later date). It is to be selected from syntypes or paratypes, although whether from uncited type material is unclear. It is also unclear whether a lectotype can be selected from uncited isotype material known to have been in the originating author's hands at the time of the originating publication, when all other candidates for type status are missing.

LOCOTYPE: (Hattori. Hepaticae Japonicae [EXS] Ser. 10 (1958) no. 498. cf. TOPOTYPE.

MEROTYPE: Portions of the holotype detached and resident away from the holotype (Fuchs. 1958. Taxon 7: 219). Comment: A useful term if used as more limited than isotype. The intent of the proposal was to designate portions of the holotype detached and distributed after the originating publication and therefore not specifically cited by the originating author. The term is most germane in regard to cryptogams, where several plants or carpophores may be included in the holotype, or in regard to particular plant organs (i.e. flowers, fruits, etc.) easily detached from the holotype.

MONOTYPE: A genus with one species or a family with one genus. In general, applied to any taxon with only one immediately subordinate taxon of one of the principal ranks. (McVaugh et al. 1968. Regn. Veget. 56: 17; ICBN). Comment: Although a nomenclatural term, the word has little to do with the typification process, but only the state of various taxa after their description, and often temporary at that. Monotype has been interpreted (Korf and Rogers. 1967. Taxon 16: 20) as an implied holotype.

MORPHOTYPE: Santesson, 1968. Morphologically distinguishable portions of populations of a single taxon.

NEOTYPE: A specimen or other element selected to serve as nomenclatural type as long as all of the material on which the name of the taxon was based is missing (ICBN Art. 7). Comment: One of the type categories designated by a later author. Although no rule requires a monographer to typify all legitimate names within the monographed group, the ICBN implies such responsibility by its repetition (Principle II, Art. 7, Art. 37, etc.) that typification is a cornerstone to assignment of names. The "Guide for the Determination of Types" (old ICBNs) implicitly emphasized the neotypification process. In the absence of an explicit holotype (viz. HOLOTYPE), it would seem wise to seek an implicit holotype before designating a neotype from specimens of holotype candidacy. All candidates for lectotypification should likewise be exhausted before neotypification is considered.

PATHOTYPE: Robinson, 1969. Pathologically differentiated races of fungi ("pathodeme").

PARATYPE: A specimen cited in the protologue other than the holotype or isotype(s; ICBN Art. 7). Comment: Once not included in the ICBN itself (but only in the "Guide for the Determination of Types"), paratypes cannot be searched to designate a lectotype. Judgement must be exercised on paratype status, for only rarely are specimens explicitly cited as paratypes, but usually as "specimens examined," "other material seen," etc.

PHOTOTYPE (conventional): 1) a photograph of the type; 2) a photograph serving as the type (ICBN, Art. 7). Comment: In recent years, classic herbaria have been photographed, and the photographs, and the photographic collections distributed. In those cases where critical taxonomic characters are visible in photographs, the system works well, but institutions which circulate ONLY photographs stand in danger of violating the spirit of the scientific community, even though justified in their action by the ICBN (... "scrupulously conserved"...). The Internationl Documentation Center has made available phototypes on microfiche.

PHYSIOTYPE: Robinson, 1969. Physiologically differentiated races of fungi ("physiodeme").

PSEUDOTYPE: (Sreemadhaven. 1968. Taxon 17: 586). Any duplicate of the holotype, syntype or paratype that was NOT studied by the originating author up to the time the name of the taxon was published.

REPRESENTATIVE SPECIMEN: 1) (Regn. Veget. 44: 42. 1966), same as neotype. 2) a specimen or other element which, in the opinion of a later author, is nomenclaturally typical of the taxon, but which is not proposed for type status. Comment: Especially useful when type material has not been examined but is suspected or known to exist - a typus pro tempore.

SCHIZOTYPE: (Korf and Rogers. 1967. Taxon 16: 22) The one specimen or other element from the original material retained in a taxon by an author who has treated in a single publication all of the syntypes of a taxon and has specifically excluded from the taxon each of the other eligible syntypes. Comment: Proposed as a special kind of implied lectotype, the term, while useful, inflicts additional literature review beyond the originating publication and other well-known works. The examples cited are all from the fungi.

SORTOTYPE: see agrotype.

STANDARD SPECIMEN: (Taxon 13: 110-114. 1964). Same as neotype.

SUSTAINING SPECIMEN: (Regn. Veget. 81: 12. 1972.) Same as auxiliary type.

SYNONYMOTYPE: The constituent or element of a taxon quoted by the [originating] author as being identical with his newly established taxon (Fuchs. 1958. Taxon 7: 219). Comment: Many of the early workers (before about 1850) proposed new names for taxa which were known to bear already established names (i.e.nomina superflua). Especially with pre-starting date names (or pre-sanctioning date), such names may have served as the basis for post-starting date legitimate names, and could be afforded some status.

TOPOTYPE (not nomenclatural): The geographical location from which the type specimen was collected (see "Guide for the Determination of Types").

TYPOTYPE: When a description or illustration serves as a type, the specimen(s) on which the description and/or illustration was based can be termed the typotype (Taxon 13: 113. 1964).

TYPUS CONSERVANDUS: Latin, "a type to be conserved;" abbreviated typ. cons. (McVaugh et al. 1968. Regn. Veget. 56: 26). Comment: Homonyms usually are separated taxonomically based on their types. Thus, in such cases, among others, it may be exigent to conserve a type and thus the concept of the name.

coprinus2.jpg (4378 bytes)  Coprinus sp.